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Europe Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Market Outlook 2018 - 2027

Europe Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Market Outlook 2018 ÷ 2027 - Single User

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This market report offers an incisive and reliable overview of the Europe net metering and self-consumption solar PV market for the period 2018 ÷ 2027...

Update: June, 2018
Format: 1 file(s) (PDF report) in English language and 1 file(s) in MS Excel with data from charts and tables
Author: Renewable Market WatchTM
Pages: 235
Report production №:
RMWIN349201812681
Delivery:
Up to 24 hours by e-mail
Subscription: In the report price is included subscription for 1 year period with 4 qurterly updates

  • This independent, 230+ page report of Renewable Market Watch™ analyzes the net metering and self-consumption supporting schemes for solar photovoltaic (PV) in 44 European countries. Through extensive research and discussions with experts in the industry, Renewable Market Watch™ has identified a series of market trends that will impact investment volume and solar PV capacity additions under net metering and self-consumption support schemes over the coming decade in Europe.

    Industry analysts of Renewable Market Watch™ used a complex array of research sources to better understand role of net metering and self-consumption solar PV systems and their application in European countries under different local regulations and support schemes. For this reason unique approach was applied in segmentation process to achieve and present better explanation of fundamental drivers and future dynamics behind the net metering and self-consumption solar PV market growth in Europe. Market was analyzed from eight main perspectives:

    1) Policy and Regulation. Support Schemes at Europe-wide and Country Level;
    2) Turn-key Solar Photovoltaic (PV) System Cost;
    3) Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) for Small Scale Residential and Commercial Solar Photovoltaic (PV)  Systems;
    4) Energy Storage Technologies and Solutions Development;
    5) Market Trends and Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-consumption Solar Photovoltaic (PV);
    6) Energy Market and Electricity Grid Network. Transmission System Operators and Utilities;
    7) Smart Grid Technologies Development;
    8) Electric Vehicles and Charging Infrastructure Development

    This report is essential reading for you or anyone in with an interest in the fast growing net metering and self-consumption solar PV market in Europe, including investment trends overview, competitive landscape and forecasting how investment volume in this market will develop over the next ten years. This report provides a comparative analysis of existing mechanisms supporting the net metering and self-consumption of electricity in all European countries and highlights the challenges and opportunities associated to their developments. You will find also detailed explanation on how to classify net metering and self-consumption support schemes and what their characteristics are.

    There are four key drivers behind the continuing net-metering and self-consumption solar PV market growth in Europe, which is expected in the next decade. First one is the drastic reduction of feed-in tariffs in many countries. Therefore feed-in tariffs started to lose their power as driver of renewable energy growth since 2011 and this process will continue. The second one is grid parity, which is progressing and by 2027 not only sun-belt countries, but also a lot of countries with less solar irradiation will have grid parity. The third one is growth of the smart grid concept, market and services, which make it easier to integrate renewable energy systems for net-metering and self-consumption. The fourth one is growth of electric vehicles and related energy storage and charging infrastructure in Europe.

    Purchasing this report will aid your company’s ability to recognize important market opportunities and understand the possibilities for investment in this area. Author of this outlook, Renewable Market Watch™ has distinguished itself throughout the years by publishing unbiased reports on the development of global renewable energy markets. For your convenience we offer opportunity for orders with customized report content. Reasons to buy this market report are, but no limited to:

    • Solar resource potential in Europe
    • Over 170 charts, maps and tables
    • Profiles of 44 countries
    • Market shares of manufacturers of solar PV modules, inverters and mounting systems
    • Historical market data provided from 2007 to 2017 and forecasts until 2027
    • Overview of European net metering and self-consumption photovoltaic (solar PV) market development 2007 ÷ 2027 by countries
    • Development scenario of European net metering and self-consumption photovoltaic (solar PV) market until 2027 by countries
    • Prosumer and Net Metering models, incentives and regulatory framework
    • Attractiveness indices and comparative analysis for net metering and self-consumption photovoltaic (solar PV) investments in Europe
    • SWOT Analysis (detailed in 5 pages)
    • Overview of Europe legal and regulatory framework for Renewable Energy Sources (RES) generation for net metering and self-consumption solar PV energy by countries
    • Project developers, EPC services providers and Consultants in Europe
    • Comprehensive review of smart grid development in Europe
    • omprehensive review of electric vehicles and related charging infrastructure development in Europe
    • Investment potential and opportunities

    At next pages you will see the full table of content of this report. To order this report just click on the button "ADD TO CART". Table of contents is referential and may vary upon report updates. If you have any other questions or data requests please do not hesitate to call us on ++44 203 60 80 138 or write an e-mail to orders@renewablemarketwatch.com


  • 1.    METHODOLOGY    12
    1.1.    Methodology    12
    1.2.    Limitations    14
    2.    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY    15
    2.1.    Primary Solar Resource Availability    15
    2.2.    RES Policies and Targets    15
    2.3.    Risks Associated with Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Projects    ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………16
    2.4.    Future Market Trends    16
    3.    WHAT IS NET METERING AND SELF-CONSUMTPION    17
    4.    EUROPEAN UNION RENEWABLE ENERGY POLICY LANDSCAPE    18
    4.1.    Renewable Energy Sources (RES) Regulations and EU Directives Affecting European Countries    18
    4.1.1.    Precedent EU Regulations    18
    4.2.    Renewable Energy Mandatory Targets for European Countries set out by the European Commission (EC)    19
    4.2.1.    Interim Targets set out by the EU    20
    4.2.2.    National Support Schemes Flexibility Allowed by the EU and Progress Reporting    20
    4.3.    Energy Community (EC) Treaty    21
    4.4.    EU 2030 Framework for Climate and Energy Policies    22
    4.5.    European Union Energy Roadmap 2050    25
    4.6.    NATURA 2000 Network    27
    4.7.    EU Antidumping Duties and Restrictions Against Chinese Solar PV Modules    28
    4.8.    Guidance of EU Commission for State Intervention in Electricity Markets    31
    5.    EUROPE ENERGY MARKET    36
    5.1.    General Electricity Market Information    36
    5.2.    Solar Photovoltaic (PV) in the Energy Sector    44
    5.3.    Single Electricity Market in European Union (EU)    48
    6.    EUROPE SOLAR RESOURCE POTENTIAL AND MAPPING    50
    7.    GLOBAL SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC (PV) ENERGY MARKET    52
    7.1.    Solar PV Modules and Solar PV Systems Cost    52
    7.2.    Market Overview    56
    7.3.    Future Development Trends    60
    8.    EUROPE SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC (PV) MARKET    63
    9.    EUROPE NET METERING AND SELF-CONSUMPTION SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC (PV) MARKET    70
    9.1.    Market Overview    70
    9.2.    Future Development Trends    71
    10.    COUNTRY PROFILES    74
    10.1.    ALBANIA    74
    10.2.    ARMENIA    76
    10.3.    AUSTRIA    78
    10.4.    AZERBAIJAN    81
    10.5.    BELARUS    83
    10.6.    BELGIUM    85
    10.7.    BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA    89
    10.8.    BULGARIA    92
    10.9.    CROATIA    94
    10.10.    CYPRUS    98
    10.11.    CZECH REPUBLIC    101
    10.12.    DENMARK    104
    10.13.    ESTONIA    107
    10.14.    FINLAND    109
    10.15.    FRANCE    111
    10.16.    GEORGIA    113
    10.17.    GERMANY    115
    10.18.    GREECE    118
    10.19.    HUNGARY    122
    10.20.    IRELAND    125
    10.21.    ITALY    127
    10.22.    KAZAKHSTAN    129
    10.23.    KOSOVO    131
    10.24.    LATVIA    133
    10.25.    LITHUANIA    135
    10.26.    MACEDONIA (FYROM)    138
    10.27.    MALTA    140
    10.28.    MOLDOVA    142
    10.29.    MONTENEGRO    144
    10.30.    NETHERLANDS    146
    10.31.    NORWAY    149
    10.32.    POLAND    151
    10.33.    PORTUGAL    154
    10.34.    ROMANIA    158
    10.35.    RUSSIA    160
    10.36.    SERBIA    162
    10.37.    SLOVAK REPUBLIC (SLOVAKIA)    164
    10.38.    SLOVENIA    167
    10.39.    SPAIN    170
    10.40.    SWEDEN    173
    10.41.    SWITZERLAND    176
    10.42.    TURKEY    179
    10.43.    UKRAINE    182
    10.44.    UNITED KINGDOM    186
    11.    COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SUPPORT SCHEMES FOR NET METERING SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC (PV) ENERGY IN EUROPE. FEED-IN TARIFFS AND GREEN CERTIFICATES    190
    12.    COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF MANDATORY RENEWABLE ENERGY CAPACITY GENERATION TARGETS IN EUROPE    191
    13.    ELECTRICITY GRID NETWORK IN EUROPE    193
    13.1.    Transmission System Operators (TSO’s)    193
    13.2.    Distribution System Operators (DSO’s)    197
    13.3.    Grid Connection Constraints    202
    14.    SMART GRID DEVELOPMENT IN EUROPE AS A KEY FACTOR FOR NET METERING SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC (PV) MARKET GROWTH    203
    14.1.    Smart Grid and Super Smart Grid Concept    203
    14.2.    Smart Grid Support Initiatives in European Countries    205
    15. ELECTRIC VEHICLES AND CHARGING INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT IN EUROPE AS A KEY FACTOR FOR NET METERING SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC (PV) MARKET GROWTH
    15.1.    Electric Vehicles Development in Europe    207
    15.2.    Electric Vehicles Charging Infrastructure Development in Europe    208
    16.    COMPETITIVE LANDSCAPE. PROJECT DEVELOPERS AND INVESTORS IN EUROPE NET METERING AND SELF-CONSUMPTION SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC (PV) MARKET    209
    17.    COMPETITIVE LANDSCAPE. EPC COMPANIES, EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURERS, SMART METER VENDORS AND CONSULTANTS IN EUROPE NET METERING AND SELF-CONSUMPTION SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC (PV) MARKET    212
    18.    SWOT ANALYSIS OF EUROPE NET METERING AND SELF-CONSUMPTION SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC (PV) MARKET    216
    19.    RISKS ABOUT INVESTMENTS IN EUROPE NET METERING AND SELF-CONSUMPTION SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC (PV) MARKET    220
    20.    INVESTMENT TRENDS, POTENTIAL AND OPPORTUNITIES IN EUROPE NET METERING AND SELF-CONSUMPTION SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC (PV) MARKET    224
    21.    CONCLUSIONS    227
    22.    LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS    229
    23.    REFERENCES    233
    24.    DISCLAIMER    234
    APPENDIX I. SOLAR MAPS OF EUROPE    235


  • MAP 1: Transmission Grids System Map of Europe 2018 39
    MAP 2: Exchange Balance of Physical Energy Flow Values in TWh in Europe and Evolution between 2016 and 2017 40
    MAP 3: Share of Renewables from Electricity Consumption in Europe, 2017 (in %) 44
    MAP 4: Solar Resource Potential of Europe 52
    MAP 5: The European Network of Transmission System Operators (TSO’s) for Electricity 2018 195
    MAP 6: Map of RWE Group Operations in Europe 201
    MAP 7: Map of CEZ Group Operations in Europe 202
    MAP 8: Smart Grid Projects Map in Europe 2018 209
    MAP 9: Solar irradiation and solar electricity potential for optimally inclined photovoltaic modules in Europe 239
    MAP 10: Solar irradiation and solar electricity potential for horizontally mounted photovoltaic modules in Europe 240

    Chart 1: Average Base Load Electricity Price in Selected European Countries (€/MWh): 2008 - 2018; Renewable Market Watch 42
    Chart 2: Forecast for RES Generation Capacity by Source Type in the EU to 2020 and 2030 (in GW) 45
    Chart 3: New Installed and Decommissioned Power Capacity by Source Type in the EU in 2017 (MW) 47
    Chart 4: Share of New Power Generation Capacities Added in the EU 28 in 2017 (MW) 48
    Chart 5: Annual Installed Power Generating Capacity (MW) and Renewable Share (in %) 2000 – 2017 in the EU, WindEurope 49
    Chart 6: Net Installed and Decommissioned Power Generation Capacity in the EU 28 for 2017 (GW) 49
    Chart 7: Historical and Forecasted Utility Solar PV System Pricing ($/W) 2013 ÷ 2022 55
    Chart 8: Average Turn-Key Rooftop Solar PV System Price in Germany 2008 – 2018 (in EUR/KWp); Source: RENEWABLE MARKET WATCH 57
    Chart 9: World Installed Renewable Energy Capacity 2012 - 2040 in GW 63
    Chart 10: Global Cumulative Installed Photovoltaic (Solar PV) capacity 2007 ÷ 2027 in MW 64
    Chart 11: Global Rooftop Solar PV Development Scenario 2012 - 2027 65
    Chart 12: European Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Cumulative Capacity Segmentation by Country in 2017 in % 69
    Chart 13: European Annual Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Market Forecast 2007 - 2027 (in MW), Renewable Market Watch 70
    Chart 14: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Europe 2007 - 2027 (in MW), including estimates 73
    Chart 15: Cumulative Investment Volume Forecast in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Europe 2007 - 2027 (in Millions EUR), including estimates 74
    Chart 16: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Albania 2007 - 2027 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM; 76
    Chart 17: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Albania 2007 - 2027 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 77
    Chart 18: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Armenia 2007 - 2027 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 78
    Chart 19: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Armenia 2007 - 2027 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 79
    Chart 20: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Austria 2007 - 2027 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 81
    Chart 21: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Austria 2007 - 2027 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 82
    Chart 22: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Azerbaijan 2007 - 2027 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 83
    Chart 23: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Azerbaijan 2007 - 2027 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 84
    Chart 24: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy Capacity in Belarus 2007 - 2027 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 85
    Chart 25: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Belarus 2007 - 2027 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 86
    Chart 26: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Belgium 2007 - 2027 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 88
    Chart 27: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Belgium 2007 - 2027 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 90
    Chart 28: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Bosnia and Herzegovina 2007 - 2027 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 92
    Chart 29: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Bosnia and Herzegovina 2007 - 2027 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 93
    Chart 30: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Bulgaria 2007 - 2027 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 95
    Chart 31: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Bulgaria 2007 - 2027 (in Millions EUR), including estimates 95
    Chart 32: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Croatia 2007 - 2027 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 98
    Chart 33: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Croatia 2007 - 2027 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 99
    Chart 34: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Cyprus 2007 - 2027 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 101
    Chart 35: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Cyprus 2007 - 2027 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 102
    Chart 36: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Czech Republic 2007 - 2027 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 104
    Chart 37: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Czech Republic 2007 - 2027 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 105
    Chart 38: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Denmark 2007 - 2027 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 106
    Chart 39: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Denmark 2007 - 2027 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 108
    Chart 40: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Estonia 2007 - 2027 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 109
    Chart 41: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Estonia 2007 - 2027 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 110
    Chart 42: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Finland 2007 - 2027 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 111
    Chart 43: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Finland 2007 - 2027 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 112
    Chart 44: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in France 2007 - 2027 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 113
    Chart 45: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in France 2007 - 2027 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 114
    Chart 46: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Georgia 2007 - 2027 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 115
    Chart 47: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Georgia 2007 - 2027 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 116
    Chart 48: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Germany 2007 - 2027 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 117
    Chart 49: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Germany 2007 - 2027 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 119
    Chart 50: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Greece 2007 - 2027 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 122
    Chart 51: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Greece 2007 - 2027 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 123
    Chart 52: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Hungary 2007 - 2027 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 124
    Chart 53: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Hungary 2007 - 2027 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 126
    Chart 54: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Ireland 2007 - 2027 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 127
    Chart 55: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Ireland 2007 - 2027 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 128
    Chart 56: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Italy 2007 - 2027 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 130
    Chart 57: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Italy 2007 - 2027 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 130
    Chart 58: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Kazakhstan 2007 - 2027 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 131
    Chart 59: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Kazakhstan 2007 - 2027 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 132
    Chart 60: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Kosovo 2007 - 2027 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 133
    Chart 61: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Kosovo 2007 - 2027 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 134
    Chart 62: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Latvia 2007 - 2027 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 136
    Chart 63: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Latvia 2007 - 2027 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 136
    Chart 64: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Lithuania 2007 - 2027 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 137
    Chart 65: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Lithuania 2007 - 2027 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 138
    Chart 66: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Macedonia 2007 - 2027 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 141
    Chart 67: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Macedonia 2007 - 2027 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 141
    Chart 68: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Malta 2007 - 2027 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 142
    Chart 69: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Malta 2007 - 2027 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 143
    Chart 70: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Moldova 2007 - 2027 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 144
    Chart 71: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Moldova 2007 - 2027 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 145
    Chart 72: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Montenegro 2007 - 2027 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 146
    Chart 73: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Montenegro 2007 - 2027 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 147
    Chart 74: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Netherlands 2007 - 2027 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 149
    Chart 75: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Netherlands 2007 - 2027 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 150
    Chart 76: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Norway 2007 - 2027 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 152
    Chart 77: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Norway 2007 - 2027 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 152
    Chart 78: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Poland 2007 - 2027 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 153
    Chart 79: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Poland 2007 - 2027 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 155
    Chart 80: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Portugal 2007 - 2027 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 156
    Chart 81: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Portugal 2007 - 2027 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 158
    Chart 82: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Romania 2007 - 2027 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 160
    Chart 83: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Romania 2007 - 2027 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 161
    Chart 84: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Russia 2007 - 2027 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 162
    Chart 85: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Russia 2007 - 2027 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 163
    Chart 86: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Serbia 2007 - 2027 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 164
    Chart 87: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Serbia 2007 - 2027 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 165
    Chart 88: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Slovakia 2007 - 2027 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 166
    Chart 89: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Slovakia 2007 - 2027 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 168
    Chart 90: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Slovenia 2007 - 2027 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 169
    Chart 91: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Slovenia 2007 - 2027 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 171
    Chart 92: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Spain 2007 - 2027 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 172
    Chart 93: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Spain 2007 - 2027 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 174
    Chart 94: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Sweden 2007 - 2027 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 175
    Chart 95: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Sweden 2007 - 2027 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 177
    Chart 96: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Switzerland 2007 - 2027 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 178
    Chart 97: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Switzerland 2007 - 2027 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 180
    Chart 98: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Turkey 2007 - 2027 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 181
    Chart 99: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Turkey 2007 - 2027 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 183
    Chart 100: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Ukraine 2007 - 2027 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 184
    Chart 101: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Ukraine 2007 - 2027 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 187
    Chart 102: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in the United Kingdom 2007 - 2027 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 188
    Chart 103: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in the United Kingdom 2007 - 2027 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 191
    Chart 104: Mandatory Capacity Generation Targets for Share of Renewable Energies in the European Union (EU) Countries by 2020 193
    Chart 105: Forecast for Total Net Generation Capacity in the EU by Source Type by 2030 198
    Chart 106: Smart Grid Model Concept 206
    Chart 107: Cumulative Number of Smart Grid Projects in Selected European countries Compared to Average EU number and Budget Invested (in € million), 2002 ÷ 2016 207
    Chart 108: Cumulative Budget (in € million) of Smart Grid Projects per Smart Grid Application in Selected European countries Compared to Average EU Numbers, 2016 208
    Chart 109: Countries and regions with Grid Parity 241

    Table 1: Crystalline Module Price Trend in 2018 56
    Table 2: Top 10 Countries by Newly Installed Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Capacity in MW in 2017 61
    Table 3: Support Schemes for Renewable Energy Sources (RES) Generation in Europe 66
    Table 4: European Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Markets Split 2009 - 2017 (in MW and GW) 67
    Table 5: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Albania 77
    Table 6: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Armenia 78
    Table 7: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Austria 80
    Table 8: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Azerbaijan 84
    Table 9: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Belarus; Renewable Market WatchTM 86
    Table 10: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Belgium 87
    Table 11: Net Metering Subsidies for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Belgium 90
    Table 12: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Bosnia and Herzegovina 91
    Table 13: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Bulgaria 94
    Table 14: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Croatia 97
    Table 15: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Cyprus 100
    Table 16: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Czech Republic 103
    Table 17: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Denmark 108
    Table 18: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Estonia; Renewable Market WatchTM 110
    Table 19: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Finland 112
    Table 20: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in France 114
    Table 21: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Georgia 115
    Table 22: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Germany 119
    Table 23: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Greece 120
    Table 24: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Greece 121
    Table 25: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Hungary 125
    Table 26: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Ireland 127
    Table 27: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Italy 129
    Table 28: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Kazakhstan 132
    Table 29: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Kosovo 134
    Table 30: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Latvia 135
    Table 31: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Lithuania 138
    Table 32: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in FYR of Macedonia 140
    Table 33: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Malta 143
    Table 34: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Moldova 145
    Table 35: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Montenegro 147
    Table 36: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Netherlands 149
    Table 37: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Norway 151
    Table 38: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Poland 155
    Table 39: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Portugal 157
    Table 40: Green certificates, Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Romania 161
    Table 41: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Russia 163
    Table 42: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Serbia 165
    Table 43: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Slovakia 167
    Table 44: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Slovenia 171
    Table 45: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Spain 173
    Table 46: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Sweden; Renewable Market WatchTM 177
    Table 47: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Switzerland 179
    Table 48: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Turkey 182
    Table 49: Additional Incentives to Feed-in-tariffs for Electricity from Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy Sources in Turkey for Domestic Procurement 183
    Table 50: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Ukraine 185
    Table 51: Local Content Requirements for Renewable Power Plants in Ukraine 186
    Table 52: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in the United Kingdom 190
    Table 53: Support Schemes for Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Selected European Countries. Comparative Analysis 2018 192
    Table 54: Grid Connection and Access Regimes in the European Union (EU), 2018 196
    Table 55: List of TSO's in Selected European Countries, 2018 198

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