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Europe Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Market Outlook 2022 - 2031

Europe Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Market Outlook 2022 ÷ 2031 - Single User

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This market report offers an incisive and reliable overview of the Europe net metering and self-consumption solar PV market for the period 2022 ÷ 2031...

Update: March 2022
Format: 1 file(s) (PDF report) in English language and 1 file(s) in MS Excel with data from charts and tables
Author: Renewable Market WatchTM
Pages: 235
Report production №:
RMWIN349202022681
Delivery:
Up to 24 hours by e-mail
Subscription: In the report price is included a subscription for 1 year period with up to 4 quarterly updates

  • This independent, 230+ page report of Renewable Market Watch™ analyzes the net metering and self-consumption supporting schemes for solar PV in 44 European countries. Through extensive research and discussions with experts in the industry, Renewable Market Watch™ has identified a series of market trends that will impact investment volume and solar PV capacity additions under net metering and self-consumption support schemes over the coming decade in Europe.

    Industry analysts of Renewable Market Watch™ used a complex array of research sources to understand better the role of net metering and self-consumption solar PV systems and their application in European countries under different local regulations and support schemes. For this reason, a unique approach was applied in the segmentation process to achieve and present a better explanation of fundamental drivers and future dynamics behind the net metering and self-consumption solar PV market growth in Europe. Renewable Market Watch™ the market from eight main perspectives:

    1) Policy and Regulation. Support Schemes at Europe-wide and Country levels;
    2) Turn-key Solar Photovoltaic (PV) System Cost;
    3) Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) for Small Scale Residential and Commercial Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Systems;
    4) Energy Storage Technologies and Solutions Development;
    5) Market Trends and Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-consumption Solar Photovoltaic (PV);
    6) Energy Market and Electricity Grid Network. Transmission System Operators and Utilities;
    7) Smart Grid Technologies Development;
    8) Electric Vehicles and Charging Infrastructure Development

    This report is essential for you or anyone interested in the fast-growing net metering and self-consumption solar PV market in Europe, including investment trends overview, competitive landscape, and forecasting of how investment volume in this market will develop over the next ten years. In addition, this report provides a comparative analysis of existing mechanisms supporting the net metering and self-consumption of electricity in all European countries and highlights the challenges and opportunities associated with their developments. You will also find a detailed explanation of how to classify net metering and self-consumption support schemes and what their characteristics are.

    There are four key drivers behind the continuing net-metering and self-consumption solar PV market growth in Europe, which is expected in the next decade. The first one is the drastic reduction of feed-in tariffs in many countries. Therefore feed-in tariffs started to lose their power as a driver of renewable energy growth in 2015, and this process will continue. The second one is grid parity, which is progressing, and by 2026 not only sun-belt countries but also many countries with less solar irradiation will have grid parity. The third one is the growth of the smart grid concept, market and services, which make it easier to integrate renewable energy systems for net-metering and self-consumption. Finally, the fourth one is the growth of electric vehicles and related energy storage and charging infrastructure in Europe.

    Purchasing this report will aid your company’s ability to recognize important market opportunities and understand the possibilities for investment in this area. The author of this outlook, Renewable Market Watch™, has distinguished itself throughout the years by publishing unbiased reports for global renewable energy markets. For your convenience, we offer the opportunity for orders with customized report content. Reasons to buy this market report are, but are not limited to:

    • Solar resource potential in Europe
    • Over 170 charts, maps and tables
    • Profiles of 44 countries
    • Market shares of manufacturers of solar PV modules, inverters and mounting systems
    • Historical market data provided from 2011 to 2021 and forecasts until 2031
    • Overview of European net metering and self-consumption photovoltaic (solar PV) market development 2011 ÷ 2031 by countries
    • Development scenario of European net metering and self-consumption photovoltaic (solar PV) market until 2032 by countries
    • Prosumer and Net Metering models, incentives and regulatory framework
    • Attractiveness indices and comparative analysis for net metering and self-consumption photovoltaic (solar PV) investments in Europe
    • SWOT Analysis (detailed in 5 pages)
    • Overview of Europe legal and regulatory framework for Renewable Energy Sources (RES) generation for net metering and self-consumption solar PV energy by countries
    • Project developers, EPC services providers and Consultants in Europe
    • A comprehensive review of smart grid development in Europe
    • A comprehensive review of electric vehicles and related charging infrastructure development in Europe
    • Investment potential and opportunities

    On the next pages, you will see the full table of content of this report. To order this report, just click on the button "ADD TO CART". The table of contents is referential and may vary upon report updates. If you have any other questions or data requests, please do not hesitate to call us on ++44 203 807 00 79 or write an e-mail to orders@renewablemarketwatch.com


  • 1. METHODOLOGY 13
    1.1. Methodology 13
    1.2. FORECAST SOFTWARE AND METHODOLOGY 15
    1.2.1. Purpose 15
    1.2.2. Description 15
    1.2.3. Input data 16
    1.2.4. Output data 16
    1.2.5. Features 16
    1.3. Limitations 17
    2. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 18
    2.1. Primary Solar Resource Availability 18
    2.2. RES Policies and Targets 18
    2.3. Risks Associated with Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Projects 18
    2.4. Future Market Trends 19
    3. WHAT IS NET METERING AND SELF-CONSUMTPION 20
    4. EUROPEAN UNION RENEWABLE ENERGY POLICY LANDSCAPE 21
    4.1. Renewable Energy Sources (RES) Regulations and EU Directives Affecting European Countries 21
    4.1.1. Precedent EU Regulations 21
    4.2. Renewable Energy Mandatory Targets for European Countries set out by the European Commission (EC) 22
    4.2.1. Interim Targets set out by the EU 22
    4.2.2. National Support Schemes Flexibility Allowed by the EU and Progress Reporting 23
    4.3. Energy Community (EC) Treaty 24
    4.4. EU 2030 Framework for Climate and Energy Policies 25
    4.5. European Union Energy Roadmap 2050 28
    4.6. NATURA 2000 Network 30
    4.7. EU Antidumping Duties and Restrictions Against Chinese Solar PV Modules 31
    4.8. Guidance of EU Commission for State Intervention in Electricity Markets 34
    5. EUROPE ENERGY MARKET 39
    5.1. General Electricity Market Information 39
    5.2. Solar Photovoltaic (PV) in the Energy Sector 46
    5.3. Single Electricity Market in European Union (EU) 50
    6. EUROPE SOLAR RESOURCE POTENTIAL AND MAPPING 52
    7. GLOBAL SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC (PV) ENERGY MARKET 54
    7.1. Solar PV Modules and Solar PV Systems Cost 54
    7.2. Market Overview 58
    7.3. Future Development Trends 61
    8. EUROPE SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC (PV) MARKET 65
    9. EUROPE NET METERING AND SELF-CONSUMPTION SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC (PV) MARKET 71
    9.1. Market Overview 71
    9.2. Future Development Trends 72
    10. COUNTRY PROFILES 75
    10.1. ALBANIA 75
    10.2. ARMENIA 77
    10.3. AUSTRIA 79
    10.4. AZERBAIJAN 82
    10.5. BELARUS 84
    10.6. BELGIUM 86
    10.7. BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA 90
    10.8. BULGARIA 93
    10.9. CROATIA 95
    10.10. CYPRUS 99
    10.11. CZECH REPUBLIC 102
    10.12. DENMARK 105
    10.13. ESTONIA 108
    10.14. FINLAND 110
    10.15. FRANCE 112
    10.16. GEORGIA 114
    10.17. GERMANY 116
    10.18. GREECE 119
    10.19. HUNGARY 123
    10.20. IRELAND 126
    10.21. ITALY 128
    10.22. KAZAKHSTAN 130
    10.23. KOSOVO 132
    10.24. LATVIA 134
    10.25. LITHUANIA 136
    10.26. MACEDONIA (FYROM) 139
    10.27. MALTA 141
    10.28. MOLDOVA 143
    10.29. MONTENEGRO 145
    10.30. NETHERLANDS 147
    10.31. NORWAY 150
    10.32. POLAND 152
    10.33. PORTUGAL 156
    10.34. ROMANIA 160
    10.35. RUSSIA 162
    10.36. SERBIA 164
    10.37. SLOVAK REPUBLIC (SLOVAKIA) 166
    10.38. SLOVENIA 169
    10.39. SPAIN 172
    10.40. SWEDEN 175
    10.41. SWITZERLAND 178
    10.42. TURKEY 181
    10.43. UKRAINE 184
    10.44. UNITED KINGDOM 188
    11. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SUPPORT SCHEMES FOR NET METERING SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC (PV) ENERGY IN EUROPE. FEED-IN TARIFFS AND GREEN CERTIFICATES 193
    12. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF MANDATORY RENEWABLE ENERGY CAPACITY GENERATION TARGETS IN EUROPE 195
    13. ELECTRICITY GRID NETWORK IN EUROPE 197
    13.1. Transmission System Operators (TSO’s) 197
    13.2. Distribution System Operators (DSO’s) 201
    13.3. Grid Connection Constraints 206
    14. SMART GRID DEVELOPMENT IN EUROPE AS A KEY FACTOR FOR NET METERING SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC (PV) MARKET GROWTH 207
    14.1. Smart Grid and Super Smart Grid Concept 208
    14.2. Smart Grid Support Initiatives in European Countries 210
    15. COMPETITIVE LANDSCAPE. PROJECT DEVELOPERS AND INVESTORS IN EUROPE NET METERING AND SELF-CONSUMPTION SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC (PV) MARKET 214
    16. COMPETITIVE LANDSCAPE. EPC COMPANIES, EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURERS, SMART METER VENDORS AND CONSULTANTS IN EUROPE NET METERING AND SELF-CONSUMPTION SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC (PV) MARKET 217
    17. SWOT ANALYSIS OF EUROPE NET METERING AND SELF-CONSUMPTION SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC (PV) MARKET 220
    18. RISKS ABOUT INVESTMENTS IN EUROPE NET METERING AND SELF-CONSUMPTION SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC (PV) MARKET 224
    18.1. Regulatory Risk 224
    18.2. Permits 225
    18.3. Competition within the Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Industry 225
    18.4. Insurance Risk 226
    18.5. Force Majeure Risk 226
    18.6. Dependency on Suppliers 226
    18.7. Construction 226
    18.8. Technology Risk 227
    18.9. Operation and Maintenance Risk 227
    18.10. Market Price of Electricity 227
    19. INVESTMENT TRENDS, POTENTIAL AND OPPORTUNITIES IN EUROPE NET METERING AND SELF-CONSUMPTION SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC (PV) MARKET 228
    20. CONCLUSIONS 231
    21. LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 233
    22. REFERENCES 237
    23. DISCLAIMER 238
    24. APPENDIX I. SOLAR MAPS OF EUROPE 239


  • MAP 1: Transmission Grids System Map of Europe 2022 39
    MAP 2: Exchange Balance of Physical Energy Flow Values in TWh in Europe and Evolution between 2020 and 2021 40
    MAP 3: Share of Renewables from Electricity Consumption in Europe 2021 (in %) 44
    MAP 4: Solar Resource Potential of Europe 52
    MAP 5: The European Network of Transmission System Operators (TSO’s) for Electricity 2022 197
    MAP 6: Map of RWE Group Operations in Europe 203
    MAP 7: Map of CEZ Group Operations in Europe 204
    MAP 8: Smart Grid Projects Map in Europe 2021 212
    MAP 9: Solar irradiation and solar electricity potential for optimally inclined photovoltaic modules in Europe 239
    MAP 10: Solar irradiation and solar electricity potential for horizontally mounted photovoltaic modules in Europe 240

    Chart 1: Average Base Load Electricity Price in Selected European Countries (€/MWh): 2012 - 2022; Renewable Market WatchTM 42
    Chart 2: Forecast for RES Generation Capacity by Source Type in the EU to 2022 and 2032 (in GW), 45
    Chart 3: New Installed and Decommissioned Power Capacity by Source Type in the EU in 2021 (MW) 47
    Chart 4: Share of New Power Generation Capacities Added in the EU 27 in 2021 (MW) 48
    Chart 5: Annual Installed Power Generating Capacity (MW) and Renewable Share (in %) 2011 – 2021 in the EU 49
    Chart 6: Net Installed and Decommissioned Power Generation Capacity in the EU 27 for 2021 (GW) 49
    Chart 7: Historical and Forecasted Utility Solar PV System Pricing ($/Wdc) 2013 ÷ 2022 55
    Chart 8: Average Turn-Key Rooftop Solar PV System Price in Germany 2012 – 2022 (in EUR/KWp) 57
    Chart 9: World Installed Renewable Energy Capacity 2012 - 2040 in GW 63
    Chart 10: Global Cumulative Installed Photovoltaic (Solar PV) capacity 2011 - 2031 in MW 63
    Chart 11: Global Rooftop Solar PV Development Scenario 2012 - 2030 64
    Chart 12: European Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Cumulative Capacity Segmentation by Country in 2021 in % 68
    Chart 13: European Annual Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Market Forecast 2011 - 2031 (in MW), Renewable Market Watch 69
    Chart 14: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Europe 2011 - 2031 (in MW), including estimates 72
    Chart 15: Cumulative Investment Volume Forecast in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Europe 2011 - 2031 (in Billion EUR), including estimates 73
    Chart 16: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Albania 2011 - 2031 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM; 75
    Chart 17: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Albania ÷ (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 76
    Chart 18: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Armenia 2011 - 2031 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 77
    Chart 19: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Armenia 2011 - 2031 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 78
    Chart 20: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Austria 2011 - 2031 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 80
    Chart 21: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Austria 2011 - 2031 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 81
    Chart 22: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Azerbaijan 2011 - 2031 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 82
    Chart 23: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Azerbaijan 2011 - 2031 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 83
    Chart 24: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy Capacity in Belarus 2011 - 2031 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 84
    Chart 25: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Belarus 2011 - 2031 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 85
    Chart 26: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Belgium 2011 - 2031 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 87
    Chart 27: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Belgium 2011 - 2031 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 89
    Chart 28: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Bosnia and Herzegovina 2011 - 2031 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 91
    Chart 29: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Bosnia and Herzegovina 2011 - 2031 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 92
    Chart 30: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Bulgaria 2011 - 2031 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 94
    Chart 31: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Bulgaria 2011 - 2031 (in Millions EUR), including estimates 94
    Chart 32: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Croatia 2011 - 2031 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 97
    Chart 33: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Croatia 2011 - 2031 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 98
    Chart 34: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Cyprus 2011 - 2031 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 100
    Chart 35: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Cyprus 2011 - 2031 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 101
    Chart 36: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Czech Republic 2011 - 2031 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 103
    Chart 37: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Czech Republic 2011 - 2031 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 104
    Chart 38: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Denmark 2011 - 2031 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 105
    Chart 39: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Denmark 2011 - 2031 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 107
    Chart 40: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Estonia 2011 - 2031 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 108
    Chart 41: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Estonia 2011 - 2031 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 109
    Chart 42: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Finland 2011 - 2031 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 110
    Chart 43: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Finland 2011 - 2031 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 111
    Chart 44: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in France 2011 - 2031 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 112
    Chart 45: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in France 2011 - 2031 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 113
    Chart 46: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Georgia 2011 - 2031 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 114
    Chart 47: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Georgia 2011 - 2031 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 115
    Chart 48: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Germany 2011 - 2031 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 116
    Chart 49: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Germany 2011 - 2031 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 118
    Chart 50: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Greece 2011 - 2031 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 121
    Chart 51: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Greece 2011 - 2031 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 122
    Chart 52: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Hungary 2011 - 2031 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 123
    Chart 53: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Hungary 2011 - 2031 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 125
    Chart 54: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Ireland 2011 - 2031 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 126
    Chart 55: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Ireland 2011 - 2031 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 127
    Chart 56: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Italy 2011 - 2031 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 129
    Chart 57: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Italy 2011 - 2031 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 129
    Chart 58: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Kazakhstan 2011 - 2031 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 130
    Chart 59: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Kazakhstan 2011 - 2031 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 131
    Chart 60: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Kosovo 2011 - 2031 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 132
    Chart 61: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Kosovo 2011 - 2031 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 133
    Chart 62: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Latvia 2011 - 2031 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 135
    Chart 63: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Latvia 2011 - 2031 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 135
    Chart 64: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Lithuania 2011 - 2031 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 136
    Chart 65: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Lithuania 2011 - 2031 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 137
    Chart 66: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Macedonia 2011 - 2031 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 140
    Chart 67: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Macedonia 2011 - 2031 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 140
    Chart 68: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Malta 2011 - 2031 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 141
    Chart 69: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Malta 2011 - 2031 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 142
    Chart 70: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Moldova 2011 - 2031 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 143
    Chart 71: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Moldova 2011 - 2031 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 144
    Chart 72: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Montenegro 2011 - 2031 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 145
    Chart 73: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Montenegro 2011 - 2031 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 146
    Chart 74: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Netherlands 2011 - 2031 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 148
    Chart 75: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Netherlands 2011 - 2031 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 149
    Chart 76: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Norway 2011 - 2031 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 151
    Chart 77: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Norway 2011 - 2031 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 151
    Chart 78: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Poland 2011 - 2031 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 152
    Chart 79: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Poland 2011 - 2031 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 155
    Chart 80: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Portugal 2011 - 2031 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 156
    Chart 81: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Portugal 2011 - 2031 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 158
    Chart 82: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Romania 2011 - 2031 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 160
    Chart 83: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Romania 2011 - 2031 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 162
    Chart 84: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Russia 2011 - 2031 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 163
    Chart 85: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Russia 2011 - 2031 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 164
    Chart 86: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Serbia 2011 - 2031 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 165
    Chart 87: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Serbia 2011 - 2031 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 166
    Chart 88: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Slovakia 2011 - 2031 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 167
    Chart 89: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Slovakia 2011 - 2031 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 169
    Chart 90: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Slovenia 2011 - 2031 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 170
    Chart 91: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Slovenia 2011 - 2031 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 172
    Chart 92: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Spain 2011 - 2031 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 173
    Chart 93: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Spain 2011 - 2031 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 175
    Chart 94: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Sweden 2011 - 2031 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 176
    Chart 95: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Sweden 2011 - 2031 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 178
    Chart 96: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Switzerland 2011 - 2031 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 179
    Chart 97: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Switzerland 2011 - 2031 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 181
    Chart 98: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Turkey 2011 - 2031 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 182
    Chart 99: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Turkey 2011 - 2031 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 184
    Chart 100: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Ukraine 2011 - 2031 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 185
    Chart 101: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in Ukraine 2011 - 2031 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 188
    Chart 102: Cumulative Development Forecast of Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in the United Kingdom 2011 - 2031 (in MW), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 189
    Chart 103: Cumulative Investment Volume in Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar PV Capacity in the United Kingdom 2011 - 2031 (in Millions EUR), including estimates; Renewable Market WatchTM 192
    Chart 104: Mandatory Capacity Generation Targets for Share of Renewable Energies in the European Union (EU) Countries by 2030 195
    Chart 105: Forecast for Total Net Generation Capacity in the EU by Source Type by 2030 200
    Chart 106: Smart Grid Model Concept 209
    Chart 107: Cumulative Number of Smart Grid Projects in Selected European countries Compared to Average EU number and Budget Invested (in € million), 2011 ÷ 2021 210
    Chart 108: Cumulative Budget (in € million) of Smart Grid Projects per Smart Grid Application in Selected European countries Compared to Average EU Numbers, 2021 211
    Chart 109: Countries and regions with Grid Parity 241

    Table 1: Crystalline Module Price Trend in 2022 56
    Table 2: Top 10 Countries by Newly Installed Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Capacity in MW in 2021 61
    Table 3: Support Schemes for Renewable Energy Sources (RES) Generation in Europe 65
    Table 4: European Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Markets Split 2011 - 2021 (in MW and GW) 66
    Table 5: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Albania 76
    Table 6: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Armenia 77
    Table 7: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Austria 79
    Table 8: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Azerbaijan 83
    Table 9: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Belarus; Renewable Market WatchTM 85
    Table 10: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Belgium 86
    Table 11: Net Metering Subsidies for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Belgium 89
    Table 12: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Bosnia and Herzegovina 90
    Table 13: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Bulgaria 93
    Table 14: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Croatia 96
    Table 15: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Cyprus 99
    Table 16: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Czech Republic 102
    Table 17: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Denmark 107
    Table 18: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Estonia; Renewable Market WatchTM 109
    Table 19: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Finland 111
    Table 20: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in France 113
    Table 21: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Georgia 114
    Table 22: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Germany 118
    Table 23: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Greece 119
    Table 24: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Greece 120
    Table 25: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Hungary 124
    Table 26: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Ireland 127
    Table 27: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Italy 128
    Table 28: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Kazakhstan 131
    Table 29: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Kosovo 133
    Table 30: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Latvia 134
    Table 31: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Lithuania 137
    Table 32: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in FYR of Macedonia 139
    Table 33: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Malta 142
    Table 34: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Moldova 144
    Table 35: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Montenegro 146
    Table 36: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Netherlands 147
    Table 37: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Norway 150
    Table 38: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Poland 154
    Table 39: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Portugal 157
    Table 40: Green certificates, Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Romania 161
    Table 41: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Russia 163
    Table 42: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Serbia 166
    Table 43: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Slovakia 168
    Table 44: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Slovenia 172
    Table 45: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Spain 174
    Table 46: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Sweden; Renewable Market WatchTM 178
    Table 47: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Switzerland 180
    Table 48: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Turkey 183
    Table 49: Additional Incentives to Feed-in-tariffs for Electricity from Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy Sources in Turkey for Domestic Procurement 183
    Table 50: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Ukraine 186
    Table 51: Local Content Requirements for Renewable Power Plants in Ukraine 187
    Table 52: Feed-in-tariffs and Net Metering Support Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in the United Kingdom 191
    Table 53: Support Schemes for Net Metering and Self-Consumption Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy in Selected European Countries. Comparative Analysis 2022 193
    Table 54: Grid Connection and Access Regimes in the European Union (EU) 2022 198
    Table 55: List of TSO's in Selected European Countries 2022 200

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